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Validation Studies

Marsh, Anthony P.; Vance, Rachel M.; Frederick, Tera L.; Hesselmann, Sarah A.; Rejeski, W. Jack (2007). Objective Assessment of Activity in Older Adults at Risk for Mobility Disability. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(6), 1020-1026.
This study compared three technology types to measure walking activity in older adults and found the NL-2000 to be "the more practical...for use in either research or clinical practice".

Schneider, P. L., S. E. Crouter, and David R. Bassett, Jr. (2004). Pedometer Measures of Free-Living Physical Activity: Comparison of 13 Models. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 36 (2), 331-335.
This study, considered one of the most respected, compares 13 pedometers during lifestyle activity (how we actually USE  them).

Schneider, P. L., S. E. Crouter, O. Lukajic, and D. R. Bassett, Jr. (2003). Accuracy and Reliability of 10 Pedometers for Measuring Steps over a 400-m Walk. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35 (10), 1779–1784.
This study compares 10 at self-selected speeds around a 400m track.

Crouter, S. E., P. L. Schneider, M. Karabulut, and D. R. Bassett, Jr. (2003). Validity of 10 Electronic Pedometers for Measuring Steps, Distance, and Energy Cost. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35 (8), 1455–1460.
This study compares 10 pedometers on a treadmill as specific speeds.

Crouter, S. E., P. L. Schneider, and D. R. Bassett, Jr. (2005). Spring-Levered versus Piezo-Electric Pedometer Accuracy in Overweight and Obese Adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37 (10) 1673-1679.
This study compares the Digiwalker and the NL-2000 on those with waists > 104cm, showing how tilt angle affects the mechanical Digiwalker, but not the piezo-electric NL-series mechanism.

Manning, Thomas F; Janelle L.; McKenzie, James M.; Moss, Alin; Swanson, Shayla L.; Heil, Daniel. (2006). Pedometer Longevity - How Long Will a Pedometer Maintain Step Counting Accuracy? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38 (5) Supplement S557
This study looked at the longevity of pedometers and accelerometers.

Melanson, Ed, J. R. Knoll, M. L. Bell, W. T. Donahoo, J.O. Hill, et. al. (2004) Commercially available pedometers: considerations for accurate step counting. Preventive Medicine, 39, 361–368.
This study highlights the advantages of piezoelectric pedometers.

Swartz, A. M., D. R. Bassett Jr., J. B. Moore, D. L. Thompson, S. J. Strath (2003). Effects of Body Mass Index on the Accuracy of an Electronic Pedometer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 588-592.
This study tests the affects of BMI and placement on pedometer accuracy at speeds over 3mph using the Digiwalker SW-200.


Lifestyle Activity Research

Bassett Jr., D. R., Schneider, P. L., & Huntington, G. E. (2004). Physical Activity in an Old Order Amish Community. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(1), 79-85.

Swartz, Ann M., Scott J. Strath, David R. Bassett Jr., Brian Moore, Beth A. Redwine, Maureen Groeër, and Dixie L. Thompson (2003). Increasing daily walking improves glucose tolerance in overweight women. Preventive Medicine, 37, 356–362.

Thompson, D. L., J. Rakow, and S. M. Perdue (2004). Relationship between Accumulated Walking and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36 (5), 911–914.


Pedometer-Related Research

Bjornson, K. F. & Belza, B. (2004). Ambulatory activity monitoring in youth: state of the science. Pediatric Physical Therapy 16(2), 82-89.

Cyarto, E. V., Myers, A. M., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2004).  Pedometer Accuracy in Nursing Home and Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(2), 205-209.

Le Masurier, G. C., Tudor-Locke, C. (2003). Comparison of Pedometer and Accelerometer Accuracy under Controlled Conditions. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35(5), 867-871.

Ozdoba, R., Corbin, C., & Le Masurier, G. C. (2004). Does reactivity exist in children when measuring activity levels with unsealed pedometers?  Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(2), 158-166.

Sirard, J. R., & Pate, R. R. (2001). Physical Activity Assessment in Children and Adolescents.  Sports Medicine, 31(6), 439-454.

Speck, B. J., & Looney, S. W. (2001). Effects of a Minimal Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women:  Daily Activity Records. Nursing Research, 50(6), 374-378.

Tudor-Locke, C., Williams, J. E., Reis, J. P., & Pluto, D. (2004). Utility of Pedometers for Assessing Physical Activity. Sports Medicine, 34(5), 281-291.

Wilde, B. E., Corbin, C. B., & Le Masurier, G. C. (2004). Free-living pedometer step counts of high school students.  Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(1), 44-53.


Andrews, R., Charlesworth, A., Evans, A., & Cowley, A. (1997). A double blind, cross-over comparison of the effects of a loop diuretic and a dopamine receptor agonist as first line therapy in patients with mild congestive heart failure. European Heart Journal, 18 (5), 852-857.

Aono, Y., Oichi, A., & Tadokoro, Y. (1997). Walking navigation system for the visually impaired using a guide stick. Electrical Engineering in Japan, 119, 69-80.

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Baranowski, T., & de Moor, C. (2000). How many days was that? Intra-individual variability and physical activity assessment. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), 74-78.

Barchfeld, T., Schonhofer, B., Jones, P., & Kohler, D. (1999). Evaluation of daily activity in patients with COPD. Medizinische Klinik (foreign language), 94 (1), 93-95.

Bassett Jr., D., Ainsworth, B., Leggett, S., Mathien, C., Main, J., Hunter, D., & Duncan, G. (1996). Accuracy of five electronic pedometers for measuring distance walked. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1071-1077.

Bassett, D., Fr., Cureton, A., & Ainsworth, B. (2000b). Measurement of daily walking distance-questionnaire versus pedometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (5), 1018-1023.

Bassett, D., Jr. (2000). Validity and reliability issues in objective monitoring of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), 30-36.

Bassett, D., Jr., Ainsworth, B., Swartz, A., Strath, S., O'Brien, W., & King, G. (2000a). Validity of four motion sensors in measuring moderate intensity physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, S471-S480.

Bassey, E., Bendall, M., & Pearson, M. (1988). Muscle strength in the triceps surae and objectively measured customary walking activity in men and women over 65 years of age. Clinical Science, 74 (1), 85-89.

Bassey, E., Dallosso, H., Fentem, P., Irving, J., & Patrick, J. (1987). Validation of a simple mechanical accelerometer (pedometer) for the estimation of walking acitivity. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 56 (3), 323-330.

Bassey., E., Patrick., J., Irving., J., Blecher., A., Fentem., P. (1983). An unsupervised "aerobics" physical training program in middle-aged factory workers: feasibility, validation and response. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 52 (1), 120-125.

Baveystock., C., Schonhofer, B., & Jones, P. (1999). Correlation between daily pedometer counts, exercise performance dyspnea and health status in COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159, A762W.

Belcher, G., Radomisli, T., Abate, J., Stabile, L., & Trafton, P. (1997). Functional outcome analysis of operatively treated malleolar fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 11 (2), 106-109.

Bermon, S., Hebuterne, X., Peroux, J., Marconnet, P., & Rampal, P. (1997). Correction of protein-energy malnutrition in older adults: effects of a short-term aerobic training program. Clinical Nutrition, 16 (6), 291-298.

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Bouten, C., Verboeket-Van de Venne, W., Westerterp, K., Verduin, M., & Janssen, J. (1996). Daily physical activity assessment: comparison between movement registration and doubly labeled water. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 1019-1026.

Bouten, C., Westerterp, K., Verduin, M., & Janssen, J. (1994). Assessment of energy expenditure for physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1516-1523.

Cauley, J., Laporte, R., Black Sandler, R., Schramm, M., & Kriska, A. (1987). Comparison of methods to measure physical activity in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 14-22.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., Werner, P., Culpepper, W., Wolfson, M., Bickel, E. (1997). Assessment of ambulatory behavior in nursing home residents who pace or wander: a comparison of four commercially available devices. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 8 (6), 359-365.

Coleman, K., Smith, D., Boone, D., Joseph, A., & del Aguila, M. (1999). Step activity monitor: long-term, continuous recording of ambulatory function. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 36, 8-18.

Cooke, C. (1996). Maximal oxygen uptake, economy and efficiency. In R. G. Eston & T. Reilly (Eds.) Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data, London: E&FN Spon, 197-220.

Cowley, A., Fullwood, L., Muller, A., Stainer, K., Skene, A., & Hampton, J. (1991b). Exercise capability in heart failure: is cardiac output important after all? Lancet, 337, 771.

Cowley, A., Fullwood, L., Stainer, K., & Hampton, J. (1991a). Exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure: how should it be measured? European Heart Journal, 12 (1), 50-54.

Davies, J., Malone, P., Harland, S., & Shearer, R. (1989). The pedometer - an objective assessment of quality of life. British Journal of Cancer, 60, 489.

Dunn, A., Kampert, B., Garcia, M., Kohl, H., & Blair, S. (1999). Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 327-334.

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Eston, R., Rowlands, A., & Ingledew, D. (1998). Validity of heart rate, pedometry, and accelerometry for predicting the energy cost of children's activities. Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 362-371.

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Fogelholm, M., Hiilloskorpi, H., Laukkanen, R., Oja, P., Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W., & Westerterp, K. (1998). Assessment of energy expenditure in overweight women Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30 (8), 1191-1197.

Fogelholm, M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., & Oja, P. (1999). Eating control and physical activity as determinants of short-term weight maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet among obese women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23 (2), 203-210.

Fogelholm, M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Nenonen, a., & Pasanen, M. (2000). Effects of walking training on weight maintenance after a very low energy diet in pre-menopausal obese women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 2177-2184.

Freedson, P. (1991). Electronic motion sensors and heart-rate as measures of physical activity in children. Journal of School Health, 61, 220-223.

Freedson, P. (1981). Field monitoring of physical activity in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1, 8-18.

Freedson, P., & Miller, K. (2000). Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), S21-S29.

Frey, J., Rochat, T., Pichard, C., Dousse, N., Janssens, J. & Tschopp, J. (1998). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing home oxygen therapy: a study of clinical parameters, nutritional status and ambulatory capacity. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires (foreign language), 15 (1), 69-78.

Fry, A., & Martin, M. (1996). Cognitive idiosyncrasies among children with the chronic fatigue syndrome: anomalies in self-reported activity levels. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 213-223.

Fujimori, K., Satoh, M., Suzuki, E., & Arakawa, M. (1993). Assessment of exercise performance by a pedometer in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Kokyu To Jukan (foreign language), 41 (4), 343-347.

Gardner, A., & Poehlman, E. (1998). Assessment of free-living daily physical activity in older claudicants: validation against the doubly labeled water technique. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 53 (4), M275-276.

Gardner, A., Montgomery, P., Womack, C., & Killewich, L. (1999). Smoking history is related to free-living daily physical activity in claudicants. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31 (7), 980-986.

Gardner, A., Sieminski, D., & Killewich, L. (1997). The effect of cigarette smoking on free-living daily physical activity in older claudication patients. The Journal of Vascular Diseases, 48 (11), 947-955.

Gayle, E., Montoye, H., & Philpot, J. (1977). Accuracy of pedometers for measuring distance walked. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 48 (3), 632-636.

Goetsch, V., Abel, J., & Pope, M. (1994). The effects of stress, mood, and coping on blood glucose in NIDDM: a prospective pilot evaluation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32 (5), 503-510.

Goldfield, G., Kalakanis, L., Ernst, L., & Epstein, L. (2000). Open-loop feedback to increase physical activity in obese children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 888-892.

Goldsmith, A., Dowson, D., Wrobleski, B., Siney, P., Fleming, P., & Lane, J. (2001). The effect of activity levels of total hip arthroplasty patients on socket penetration. J. Arthroplasty, 16 (5), 620-627.

Goldsmith, A., Dowson, D., Wroblewski, B., Siney, P., Fleming, P., Lane, J., Stone, M., & Walker, R. (2001). Comparative study of the activity of total hip arthroplasty patients and normal subjects. J. Arthroplasty, 16 (5), 613-619.

Gretebeck, R., & Montoye, H. (1992). Variability of some objective measures of physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, 1167-1172.

Groves, D. (1988). Beyond the pedometer: new tools for monitoring activity. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 16 (6), 160-164.

Hachisuka, K., Tsutsui, Y., Furusawa, K., & Ogata, J. (1998). Gender differences in disability and lifestyle among community-dwelling elderly stroke patients in Kitakyushu, Japan. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 998-1002.

Hagiware, A., Hayashi, Y., Nakamura, Y., & Muraoka, I. (2000). Effects of group versus home-based walking intervention on lifestyle activity. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 49, 571-579.

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Hatano, Y. (1993). Use of the pedometer for promoting daily walking exercise. Journal of the International Committee on Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 4-8.

Heiser, J., Epstein, L., & Wing, R. (1981). Mechanical reliability of pedometers. The Behavior Therapist, 4, 21-22.

Hendelman, D., Miller, K., Baggett, C., Debold, E., & Freedson, P. (2000). Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physical activity in the field. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (9 Suppl), S442-S449.

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Hoshikawa, T., Matsui, H., Izuhara, K., & Sano, S. (1987). A study on amount of daily physical activity of elementary school children determined by a pedometer. Taiiku no Kagaku [Journal of Health, Physical Education & Recreation] (foreign language), 15, 56-66.

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Ino-Oka, E., Takahashi, T., Sagawa, K., & Inooka, H. (1996). Diagnosis of silent myocardial ischemia using ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring with pedometer, analysis of heart rate, and ST loop in ambulatory electrocardiogram. Clinical Cardiology, 19 (6), 467-472.

Ino-Oka, E., Umeda, S., Kutsuwa, Y., Takahashi, T., Sagawa, K., & Inooka, H. (1998). The effects of an angiotensin-converting inhibitor (enalapril) on patients with mild cardiac failure - evaluating cardiac function based on the relationship between daily walking pace and heart rate. Clinical Cardiology, 21 (12), 893-898.

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Irimagawa, S., &Imamiya, S. (1993). Industrial hygienic study on nursing activities comparison of energy expenditure between pedometer and holter eletrocardiograph. Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 65, 99-105.

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